Gregario and R&D Centre for bicycle of Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Gregario is well known for providing a range of excellent b2b bicycles design services, but not yet for providing courses and workshops too. Isn’t uncommon for us to travel outside Italy to provide such expertise with passion. We were delighted to be selected as international experts by a representative from The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) to held design a workshop about bicycle design for the Research and Development Centre for Bicycles and Sewing Machines in Ludhiana (RDCBSM), India.

As you know, Gregario is not only Salvatore, but more like an open lab were time by time experts are involved for collaboration. In this case, to provide the widest approach I coupled with an old mate, Paolo Baldissera (Mech. Eng. and PhD) from Politecnico di Torino. Paolo has an extended experience in applied research, he is the Founder and Technical advisor of Team Policumbent, and his love for bike science make him perfect matching with my philosophy.


We were asked to create bespoke course about specific topics related to bicycle design and we accepted the challenge. We worked with Unido and the R&D Centre to create a 3 days program allowing the participants to have a complete overview on bicycle design, manufacturing processes and engineering related topics. We found soon a good relation and the effort has been appreciated, so much that in few months we agreed for a second course, where we provided other 3 days, but with more in depth view about Finite Element Analysis of bicycles components in a hands-on training.





The participants at the two workshops were Managers and Engineers from R&D and from all India Bicycle Industries. We travelled on purpose to Ludhiana, Punjab where the centre have his location.

As for our philosophy, we made sure that all of the request was carefully centered around the main task of learning how to design a bicycle and its components. The participants were so interested that covered us with lot of additional requests, so we tried as possible to re-arrange the schedule and provide more knowledge where they were more interested. Now back to their job, we are sure they are bring their newly acquired knowledge and skill set with them.




It was the first time we met India, its culture, and its bicycle industry. At the end, we can say we learnt a lot too and had very pleasant time. We meet an industry in development, its actors, the cycles (AICMA) and components (UCPMA) associations, some of their entrepreneurs and managers, and the guys that works in development area first. Ludhiana, is currenlty the “bike-valley” of India and after a first look at their programs, we can say they are on the right way to become a future player on the market, thanks to the help of UNIDO and Indian Government.

The story doesn’t end here though. Gregario is working to find solutions and provide support to them. We really enjoy meeting and working with the R&D team for Bicycles and Sewing Machines and Industries and we can’t wait to work with them further in the future. Huge thanks to UNIDO and his representatives that helped to make this project a really positive opportunity for all involved.

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Blog | 29 March 2024


At Gregario, we have always cultivated esteem and respect for the artisanal frame-building tradition of our beautiful country, which is dedicated to a niche of timeless “classic” products, primarily made from steel, but also incorporating wrapped carbon and other techniques specific to small workshops.

So long live frame builders and anyone dedicated to preservation and pass on a noble and fascinating ars technica !

That said, we recently came across some social media posts from several respected bicycle craftspeople who, while rightly praising the (undoubted) qualities of their frames, contrast their “handmade” products with “moulded” monocoque carbon frames. On the face of it, this seems like a legitimate claim, but this narrative leads to significant misinformation about HOW such “moulded” frames are actually produced… namely, with manual work that is decidedly more demanding and onerous than any technique for joining eight tubes.

Yes, because we are not talking about printing cookies, but rather about carefully arranging over 200 fabric shapes (pre-impregnated carbon) inside a mould. These pieces range from 40 cm strips to tiny stamps, all positioned by hand according to a precise plan (the ply-book) with meticulous overlaps, folds to manage and fibre orientations to respect. And this is only half the work, because then, depending on the resin curing technology used, there are a further series of steps involved, always rigorously by hand.

In the case of autoclaves (the most common technique in Europe), it is necessary to carefully position the internal bags, close the two half-moulds without pinching anything, arrange a series of auxiliary materials, close the external bag, apply the putty to connect the internal bags with the external and so on until the whole thing is cured under high pressure and temperature. Furthermore, once the curing is finished, it’s back to manual work for mould opening, part extraction, and finishing. All this with a series of possible variations we won’t go into now.

In short, there is nothing more “handmade” than a carbon monocoque frame.

Blog | 11 August 2023

Cycling meditating

Every successful ride is first and foremost a meditation activity.

Sooner or later along the way, we find ourselves entering a sort of trance: the lungs ventilate, the heart pumps, the muscle memory becomes automatic pilot: intensity, timing, coordination, reflexes. At this point, the brain has “only” to keep an eye on potholes and other road users (and that’s no small thing), but, considering the available computing power, it finds itself unemployed on average. Daily problems are suddenly summoned to a quick and decisive mental meeting: what can be solved is solved, what is not important is reduced, a sudden “lateral” gaze opens up on what seemed insoluble. The shower upon return consolidates the thoughts, fixes the fundamental ideas and we are ready to face new personal and professional challenges.

However, all this happens only on one condition: the absence of pain. Fatigue isn’t a problem, that’s part of the game, it’s wanted and desired by the cyclist, but pain is a whole other story, pain ruins everything. A knee that becomes inflamed, an insistent discomfort in the neck or an unexpected burning in the groin can compromise all the meditative pleasure. The brain can’t focus on anything else: “Maybe if I go back a little on the saddle… no, now I’ll try standing up… nothing to do, I’ll go back to gripping high… nothing, maybe a sprint will help to unlock, nope… what do I do? I know I have to go back.” Missed goals and consequent disappointment.

Then, maybe, you wait a few days, even a week and try again. And what a frustration when that pain makes itself felt again, perhaps even after a few kms in which it has left us harboring the illusion of a successful ride. Even in the hypothesis of lowering the pace and concluding the following rides without problems, the mental state is compromised: one spends the time listening to the nerves, registering every slightest signal, in fear of recognizing the beginning of that pain again.

In the worst case, you enter a loop of medical visits, bike-fitting sessions, saddle/handlebar/stem/riser/cleat/adjustment changes/etc. And in all of this we stop at a certain point to think: where is that pleasure of getting on our most faithful bike, taking the road and quickly entering that meditation bubble?

Anyone who has known this path knows that a custom frame represents the most effective and long-lasting solution. A custom frame is designed to adapt to the physical and morphological characteristics of the cyclist, ensuring optimal posture, balanced weight distribution and less pressure on the joints. Thanks to this customization, the risk of experiencing pain and injuries is drastically reduced, allowing you to fully enjoy every pedal stroke and to keep your mind focused on the essence of the journey. Investing in a custom frame is investing in your physical and mental well-being, rediscovering that meditation in motion that makes cycling one of the most rewarding and liberating experiences. Only in this way will the cyclist be able to rediscover the true meaning of that meditation bubble on two wheels, where the body, the mind and the road merge in perfect harmony.

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